Durability Design of Concrete Structures in Severe Environments

Durability Design of Concrete Structures in Severe Environments


Durability Design of Concrete Structures in Severe Environments

Contents of Durability Design of Concrete Structures

Preface xi
Acknowledgments xiii
About the Author xv
1 Historical review 1
References 13
2 Field experience 15
2.1 General 15
2.2 Harbor structures 16
2.3 Bridges 40
2.4 Offshore structures 50
2.5 Other structures 60
2.6 Summary 62
2.6.1 General 62
2.6.2 Deteriorating mechanisms 62
2.6.2.1 Corrosion of embedded steel 62
2.6.2.2 Alkali–aggregate
reaction 62
2.6.2.3 Freezing and thawing 63
2.6.3 Codes and practice 63
2.6.4 Achieved construction quality 65
2.6.5 Operation of the structures 65
References 65
vi Contents
3 Corrosion of embedded steel 71
3.1 General 71
3.2 Chloride ingress 72
3.2.1 General 72
3.2.2 Effect of cement type 74
3.2.3 Effect of temperature 83
3.3 Passivity of embedded steel 85
3.4 Corrosion rate 87
3.4.1 General 87
3.4.2 Electrical resistivity 88
3.4.3 Oxygen availability 90
3.5 Cracks 92
3.6 Galvanic coupling between freely
exposed and embedded steel 94
3.7 Structural design 95
References 95
4 Durability analysis 99
4.1 General 99
4.2 Calculation of chloride ingress 101
4.3 Calculation of probability 102
4.4 Calculation of corrosion probability 104
4.5 Input parameters 106
4.5.1 General 106
4.5.2 Environmental loading 107
4.5.2.1 Chloride loading, CS 107
4.5.2.2 Age at chloride loading, t′ 110
4.5.2.3 Temperature, T 110
4.5.3 Concrete quality 111
4.5.3.1 Chloride diffusivity, D 111
4.5.3.2 Time dependence factor, α 114
4.5.3.3 Critical chloride content, CCR 115
4.5.4 Concrete cover, XC 116
4.6 Case studies 117
4.6.1 General 117
4.6.2 Concrete harbor structure 118
4.6.2.1 Effect of concrete quality 118
4.6.2.2 Effect of concrete cover 121
4.6.3 Underwater infrastructure 123
Contents vii
4.6.3.1 Effect of concrete quality 123
4.6.3.2 Effect of concrete cover 125
4.6.4 Evaluation and discussion of obtained results 126
References 127
5 Additional strategies and protective measures 131
5.1 General 131
5.2 Stainless steel reinforcement 132
5.3 Other protective measures 136
5.3.1 Nonmetallic reinforcement 136
5.3.2 Concrete surface protection 137
5.3.3 Concrete hydrophobation 142
5.3.4 Cathodic prevention 142
5.3.5 Corrosion inhibitors 144
5.3.6 Structural design 145
5.3.7 Prefabricated structural elements 146
References 148
6 Concrete quality control and quality assurance 153
6.1 General 153
6.2 Chloride diffusivity 155
6.2.1 General 155
6.2.2 Test specimens 156
6.2.3 Testing procedure 157
6.2.4 Evaluation of obtained results 159
6.3 Electrical resistivity 159
6.3.1 General 159
6.3.2 Test methods 160
6.3.3 Evaluation of obtained results 162
6.4 Concrete cover 163
6.5 Electrical continuity 165
6.5.1 General 165
6.5.2 Testing procedure 165
References 166
7 Achieved construction quality 169
7.1 General 169
7.2 Compliance with specified durability 170
7.3 In situ quality 170
7.4 Potential quality 171
viii Contents
8 Condition assessment, preventive maintenance, and repairs 173
8.1 General 173
8.2 Control of chloride ingress 174
8.3 Probability of corrosion 176
8.4 Protective measures 179
8.5 Repairs 180
8.6 Case study 180
8.6.1 General 180
8.6.2 Condition assessment 181
8.6.3 Protective measure 183
References 184
9 Practical applications 187
9.1 General 187
9.2 Container terminal 1, Oslo (2002) 188
9.2.1 Specified durability 188
9.2.2 Achieved construction quality 189
9.2.3 In situ quality 191
9.2.4 Potential quality 191
9.3 Container terminal 2, Oslo (2007) 192
9.3.1 General 192
9.3.2 Specified durability 192
9.3.3 Compliance with specified durability 193
9.3.4 In situ quality 196
9.3.5 Potential quality 197
9.4 New city development, Oslo (2010) 197
9.4.1 General 197
9.4.2 Specified durability 200
9.4.2.1 Performance-based
durability requirements 200
9.4.2.2 Prescriptive-based durability
requirements 201
9.4.3 Concrete quality control 202
9.4.4 Achieved construction quality 204
9.4.4.1 Compliance with specified durability 204
9.4.4.2 In situ quality 207
9.4.4.3 Potential quality 208
9.4.5 Frost resistance 209
9.4.6 Additional protective measures 210
Contents ix
9.5 Evaluation and discussion of obtained results 210
9.6 Concluding remarks 214
References 215
10 Life cycle costs 217
10.1 General 217
10.2 Case study 218
10.2.1 General 218
10.2.2 Doing nothing 220
10.2.3 Increased concrete quality 220
10.2.4 Increased concrete cover 221
10.2.5 Increased concrete quality and concrete cover 221
10.2.6 Seventy-five
percent stainless steel reinforcement 221
10.2.7 One hundred percent stainless steel reinforcement 222
10.2.8 Cathodic protection 222
10.2.9 Evaluation and discussion of obtained results 222
References 223
11 Life cycle assessment 225
11.1 General 225
11.2 Framework for life cycle assessment 227
11.3 Case study 230
11.3.1 General 230
11.3.2 Patch repair 230
11.3.3 Hydrophobic surface treatment 231
11.3.4 Evaluation and discussion of obtained results 232
References 233
12 Codes and practice 235
12.1 General 235
12.2 Codes and practice 236
12.2.1 Offshore concrete structures 236
12.2.2 Land-based
concrete structures 238
12.3 New recommended job specifications 244
12.3.1 Service period 244
12.3.2 Achieved construction quality 246
12.3.3 Condition assessment and preventive maintenance 246
References 247


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