Masonry Structural Design By Richerd E Klingner

Masonry Structural Design By Richerd E Klingner

Masonry Structural Design By Richerd E Klingner

Contents of Masonry Structural Design By Richerd E Klingner

1 Basic Structural Behavior and Design of Low-Rise, Bearing Wall Buildings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
1.1 Basic Structural Behavior of Low-Rise, Bearing
Wall Buildings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
1.2 Basic Structural Design of Low-Rise, Masonry Buildings . . . . 4
2 Materials Used in Masonry Construction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
2.1 Basic Components of Masonry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
2.2 Masonry Mortar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
2.3 Masonry Grout . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
2.4 General Information on ASTM Specifi cations for
Masonry Units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
2.5 Clay Masonry Units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
2.6 Concrete Masonry Units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
2.7 Properties of Masonry Assemblages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
2.8 Masonry Accessory Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
2.9 Design of Masonry Structures Requiring Little
Structural Calculation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
2.10 How to Increase Resistance of Masonry to
Water Penetration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
3 Code Basis for Structural Design of Masonry Buildings . . . . . . . . . . 57
3.1 Introduction to Building Codes in the United States . . . . . . . . 59
3.2 Introduction to the Calculation of Design Loading
Using the 2009 IBC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
3.3 Gravity Loads according to the 2009 IBC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
3.4 Wind Loading according to the 2009 IBC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
3.5 Earthquake Loading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
3.6 Loading Combinations of the 2009 IBC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103
3.7 Summary of Strength Design Provisions of
2008 MSJC Code . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105
3.8 Summary of Allowable-Stress Design Provisions of
2008 MSJC Code . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109
3.9 Additional Information on Code Basis for Structural
Design of Masonry Buildings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113
4 Introduction to MSJC Treatment of Structural Design . . . . . . . . . . . . 117
4.1 Basic Mechanical Behavior of Masonry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119
4.2 Classifi cation of Masonry Elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120
4.3 Classifi cation of Masonry Elements by Structural Function . . . 120
4.4 Classifi cation of Masonry Elements by Design Intent . . . . . . . 121
4.5 Design Approaches for Masonry Elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121
4.6 How Reinforcement Is Used in Masonry Elements . . . . . . . . . 122
4.7 How This Book Classifi es Masonry Elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127
5 Strength Design of Unreinforced Masonry Elements . . . . . . . . . . . . 131
5.1 Strength Design of Unreinforced Panel Walls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133
5.2 Strength Design of Unreinforced Bearing Walls . . . . . . . . . . . . 147
5.3 Strength Design of Unreinforced Shear Walls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161
5.4 Strength Design of Anchor Bolts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168
5.5 Required Details for Unreinforced Bearing Walls
and Shear Walls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177
6 Strength Design of Reinforced Masonry Elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181
6.1 Strength Design of Reinforced Beams and Lintels . . . . . . . . . . 183
6.2 Strength Design of Reinforced Curtain Walls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191
6.3 Strength Design of Reinforced Bearing Walls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 196
6.4 Strength Design of Reinforced Shear Walls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 212
6.5 Required Details for Reinforced Bearing Walls and
Shear Walls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 223
7 Allowable-Stress Design of Unreinforced Masonry Elements . . . . . 227
7.1 Allowable-Stress Design of Unreinforced Panel Walls . . . . . . . 229
7.2 Allowable-Stress Design of Unreinforced Bearing Walls . . . . . 243
7.3 Allowable-Stress Design of Unreinforced Shear Walls . . . . . . . 259
7.4 Allowable-Stress Design of Anchor Bolts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 265
7.5 Required Details for Unreinforced Bearing Walls and
Shear Walls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 274
8 Allowable-Stress Design of Reinforced Masonry Elements . . . . . . . 279
8.1 Review: Behavior of Cracked, Transformed Sections . . . . . . . . 281
8.2 Allowable-Stress Design of Reinforced Beams and Lintels . . . 295
8.3 Allowable-Stress Design of Curtain Walls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 300
8.4 Allowable-Stress Design of Reinforced Bearing Walls . . . . . . . 306
8.5 Allowable-Stress Design of Reinforced Shear Walls . . . . . . . . . 319
8.6 Required Details for Reinforced Bearing Walls
and Shear Walls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 324
9 Comparison of Design by the Allowable-Stress Approach versus the Strength Approach . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 329
9.1 Comparison of Allowable-Stress and Strength Design of
Unreinforced Panel Walls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 331
9.2 Comparison of Allowable-Stress Design and Strength
Design of Unreinforced Bearing Walls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 332
9.3 Comparison of Allowable-Stress Design and Strength
Design of Unreinforced Shear Walls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 332
9.4 Comparison of Allowable-Stress and Strength Designs for
Anchor Bolts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 333
9.5 Comparison of Allowable-Stress and Strength Designs for
Reinforced Beams and Lintels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 334
9.6 Comparison of Allowable-Stress and Strength Designs for
Reinforced Curtain Walls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 335
9.7 Comparison of Allowable-Stress and Strength Designs for
Reinforced Bearing Walls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 336
9.8 Comparison of Allowable-Stress and Strength Designs for
Reinforced Shear Walls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 336
10 Lateral Load Analysis of Shear-Wall Structures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 339
10.1 Classifi cation of Horizontal Diaphragms as
Rigid or Flexible . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 342
10.2 Lateral Load Analysis of Shear-Wall Structures with
Rigid Floor Diaphragms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 343
10.3 Lateral Load Analysis and Design of Shear-Wall Structures
with Flexible Floor Diaphragms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 362
10.4 The Simplest of All Possible Analytical Worlds . . . . . . . . . . . . 364
11 Design and Detailing of Floor and Roof Diaphragms . . . . . . . . . . . . 367
11.1 Introduction to Design of Diaphragms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 369
11.2 Typical Connection Details for Roof and
Floor Diaphragms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 372
12 Strength Design Example: One-Story Building with Reinforced Concrete Masonry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 375
12.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 377
12.2 Design Steps for One-Story Building . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 378
12.3 Step 1: Choose Design Criteria . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 378
12.4 Step 2: Design Walls for Gravity plus Out-of-Plane Loads . . . 389
12.5 Step 3: Design Lintels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 406
12.6 Summary So Far . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 409
12.7 Step 4: Conduct Lateral Force Analysis, Design
Roof Diaphragm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 410
12.8 Step 5: Design Wall Segments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 413
12.9 Step 6: Design and Detail Connections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 415
13 Strength Design Example: Four-Story Building with Clay Masonry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 417
13.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 419
13.2 Design Steps for Four-Story Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 419
13.3 Step 1: Choose Design Criteria, Specify Materials . . . . . . . . . . 420
13.4 Step 2: Design Transverse Shear Walls for Gravity plus
Earthquake Loads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 428
13.5 Step 3: Design Exterior Walls for Gravity plus
Out-of-Plane Wind . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 435
13.6 Overall Comments on Four-Story Building Example . . . . . . . 435
14 Structural Design of AAC Masonry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 437
14.1 Introduction to Autoclaved Aerated Concrete (AAC) . . . . . . . 439
14.2 Applications of AAC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 444
14.3 Structural Design of AAC Elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 444
14.4 Design of Unreinforced Panel Walls of AAC Masonry . . . . . . 449
14.5 Design of Unreinforced Bearing Walls of AAC Masonry . . . . 452
14.6 Design of Unreinforced Shear Walls of AAC Masonry . . . . . . 462
14.7 Design of Reinforced Beams and Lintels of AAC Masonry . . . 467
14.8 Design of Reinforced Curtain Walls of AAC Masonry . . . . . . 473
14.9 Design of Reinforced Bearing Walls of AAC Masonry . . . . . . 473
14.10 Design of Reinforced Shear Walls of AAC Masonry . . . . . . . . 481
14.11 Seismic Design of AAC Structures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 493
14.12 Design Example: Three-Story AAC Shear-Wall Hotel . . . . . . . 495
14.13 References on AAC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 524
14.14 Additional References on AAC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 525
References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 529
General References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 531
ASTM Standards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 532
Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 535

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