Experiment No. 3:
Standard Test Method for Sieve Analysis of fine and coarse aggregates from different sources. (ASTM C13605)
Scope & Significance:
 This test method covers the determination of the particle size distribution of fine and coarse aggregates by sieving.
 This test method is used to determine the grading of materials proposed for use as aggregates or being used as aggregates. Sieve Analysis
 Accurate determination of materials finner than 75 micron (Sieve No 200) can not be achieved by this test
Related Theory:
Fineness Modulus
It is the cumulative percentage retained on standard sieve 150μm or sieves No 100 and above divided by 100. It is a single factor or an empirical number which we get from the results of sieve analysis. The value of FM will not change if we add non standard sieves in standard set of sieves. The information obtained from fineness modulus is helpful in the following ways; Sieve Analysis
1 Fineness modulus tells us directly whether the material is wellgraded or gapgraded.
2 Fineness modulus gives us an overall idea whether the material is fine or coarse. Higher the value of FM ,coarser will be the aggregate. Sieve Analysis
3 It also indicates the surface area of the particles. Lower the surface area of the aggregate, the required amount of fresh cement paste to cover the aggregate particles will be less and thus less water is required.
4 Larger value of FM is preferred for fine aggregates. For a good fine aggregate, the FM should be between 2.3 and 3.1 (ASTM Range for fine aggregates).
5 A FM of 4 can be interpreted to means that the fourth sieve from bottom i.e. sieve No. 16 is the average size of the aggregate particles in the given sample. Sieve Analysis
 Standard set of sieves
 Sieve shaker
 Sample of the aggregate
Sieve Analysis
It is the operation of dividing the aggregate into various fractions, each consisting of particles of same size.
OR
It is the operation of determining the particle size distribution of the given specimen.
The standard approach is to designate the sieve sizes by nominal aperture sizes in mm or μm (micron).
1 mm = 1000 μm (micron) Sieve Analysis
Notes:
i Sieve No 4 is the dividing line between coarse and fine aggregate.
ii Well graded coarse aggregates of large size will reduce shrinkage of concrete by 50%.
Functions Of Sieve Analysis
Sieve analysis is performed on coarse and fine aggregates to in order to check their gradation. This gradation gives an indirect measure if the workability and average particle size. Sieve Analysis
SET OF SIEVES
The set of sieves used for the process of sieve analysis can be designated as;
ASTM Standard Sieves (mm) 
ASTM Standard Sieves (inch) 
75 
(3 ”) 
37.5 
(1½ ”) 
19 
(3/4 ”) 
9.5 
(3/8 ”) 
4.75 
Sieve No 4 (3/16 ”) 
2.36 
Sieve No 8 (3/32 ”) 
1.18 
Sieve No 16 
600 μm 
Sieve No 30 
300 μm 
Sieve No 50 
150 μm 
Sieve No 100 
Procedure:
Take 2 kg of the ovendried sample. The sample should be perfectly dry because if there is some moisture content present then the particles will stick together and will not pass through the sieves. Sieve Analysis
Temperature of the oven = 110±5 °C
Place the set of standard and nonstandard sieves one above another with the smallest aperture opening at the bottom. The pan is placed at the bottommost position. This experiment can be performed manually or with the aid of a machine called “sieve shaker”. The manual method should be performed in a proper sequence which is as follows;
i forward and backward motion
ii left and right motion
iii clockwise (CW) and counterclockwise (CCW) motion
iv frequent jolting.
Time elapsed for the sieving process is 35 minutes and should not be less than 3 minutes .Weigh the mass retained on each sieve and calculate the percentage passing through each sieve. Then the FM can be calculated by using the relation;
Following points must be kept in mind while calculating the FM;
i Only sum up the values of standard sieves and do not include the values of the nonstandard sieves.
ii Only add the sieves of 150μm and above sizes.
iii If any standard sieve is missing, we may use the value of next higher sieve.
iv Adding extra sieves does not change the result of FM. Sieve Analysis
Grading Requirement (Quality of A Sample ):
Sieve Analysis Grading basically indicates the sizes of the aggregates and in which proportions they are present. There are some limiting values for every sieve provided by ASTM or BS, we use these limiting values to get our final answer by the method explained below. Take the minimum and the maximum values provided by ASTM and plot them on the grading curve. Now take these minimum and maximum value lines as your reference and if the curve of our own data lies inside these two lines then the quality of our sample is OK but if your curve lies outside these two lines of maximum and minimum range then the sample is not according to specifications. Sieve Analysis
ASTM Grading Requirements For Fine Aggregates
Sieve Size 
Cumulative % Passing 

Minimum 
Maximum 

9.5mm 
100 
100 
4.75mm 
95 
100 
2.36mm 
80 
100 
1.18mm 
50 
85 
600μm 
25 
60 
300μm 
10 
30 
150μm 
2 
10 
Observations & Results
Sample no. 1:……Laurence pure Sand …… Sample weight = 1000g = 1kg
Sieve # 
Sieve Sizes 
Mass Retained 
% Retained 
Cumulative % Retained 
Cumulative % Passing 
(openings per linear inch) 
(mm or μm) 
(gm) 
(%) 
(%) 
(%) 
4 
4.75 
9 
0.9 
0.9 
99.1 
8 
2.36 
44 
4.4 
5.3 
94.7 
16 
1.18 
163 
16.3 
21.6 
78.4 
30 
600 μm 
191 
19.1 
40.7 
59.3 
50 
300 μm 
468 
46.8 
87.5 
12.5 
100 
150 μm 
101 
10.1 
97.6 
2.4 
Pan 
Pan 
24 
2.4 
100 
0 
Cumulative Percentage Retained up to particle size 150μm = 253.6 Sieve Analysis
Fineness Modulus = 2.536
Sample no. 2:……Chenab Sand …… Sample weight = 1000g = 1kg
Sieve # 
Sieve Sizes 
Mass Retained 
% Retained 
Cumulative % Retained 
Cumulative % Passing 
(openings per linear inch) 
(mm or μm) 
(gm) 
(%) 
(%) 
(%) 
4 
4.75 
0 
0 
0 
100 
8 
2.36 
4 
0.4 
0.4 
99.6 
16 
1.18 
7 
0.7 
1.1 
98.9 
30 
600 μm 
9 
0.9 
2 
98 
50 
300 μm 
490 
49 
51 
49 
100 
150 μm 
437 
43.7 
94.7 
5.3 
Pan 
Pan 
53 
5.3 
100 
0 
Cumulative Percentage Retained up to particle size 150μm = 149.2
Fineness Modulus = 1.492
ASTM Grading Requirements For Coarse Aggregates
Sieve Size (mm) 
% Passing 

37.5 mm down Aggregate 
19 mm down Aggregate 
12.5 mm down Aggregate 

Min 
Max 
Min 
Max 
Min 
Max 

50 
100 
100 
– 
– 
– 
– 
37.5 
95 
100 
– 
– 
– 
– 
25 
– 
– 
100 
100 

19 
35 
70 
90 
100 
100 
100 
12.5 
– 
– 
– 
– 
90 
100 
9.5 
10 
30 
20 
55 
40 
70 
4.75 
0 
5 
0 
10 
0 
15 
2.36 
– 
– 
0 
5 
0 
5 
Observations & Results
Sample no. 3:……Sargodha Crush …… Sample weight = 4000g = 4kg
Sieve # 
Sieve Sizes 
Mass Retained 
% Retained 
Cumulative % Retained 
Cumulative % Passing 
(openings per linear inch) 
(mm or μm) 
(gm) 
(%) 
(%) 
(%) 
3 
75 
0 
0 
0 
100 
1½ 
37.5 
0 
0 
0 
100 
3/4. 
19 
97 
2.425 
2.425 
97.575 
3/8. 
9.5 
3552 
88.8 
91.225 
8.775 
3/16. 
4.75 
336 
8.4 
99.625 
0.375 
3/32. 
2.36 
1 
0.025 
99.65 
0.35 
Pan 
Pan 
14 
0.35 
100 
0 
Cumulative Percentage Retained up to particle size 150μm = 292.925
Fineness Modulus = 2.929
Sample no. 4:……Margala Crush …… Sample weight = 4000g = 4kg
Sieve # 
Sieve Sizes 
Mass Retained 
% Retained 
Cumulative % Retained 
Cumulative % Passing 
(openings per linear inch) 
(mm or μm) 
(gm) 
(%) 
(%) 
(%) 
3 
75 
0 
0 
0 
100 
1½ 
37.5 
0 
0 
0 
100 
3/4. 
19 
346 
8.65 
8.65 
91.35 
3/8. 
9.5 
2840 
71 
79.65 
20.35 
3/16. 
4.75 
798 
19.95 
99.6 
0.4 
3/32. 
2.36 
4 
0.1 
99.7 
0.3 
Pan 
Pan 
12 
0.3 
100 
0 
Cumulative Percentage Retained up to particle size 150μm = 287.6
Fineness Modulus = 2.876
COMMENTS :
The experiment has been performed successfully and the fineness modulus of different samples have been calculated which are shown in tabular form below. Sieve Analysis
Name of Sample 
Laurence pure Sand 
Chenab Sand 
Sargodha Crush 
Margala Crush 
Fineness Modulus 
2.563 
1.492 
2.929 
2.876 
Sieve Analysis.As we know that the Fineness modulus is a measurement of the coarseness or fineness of a given aggregate, higher the FM the coarser the aggregate. The above table is showing us that the Laurence pure sand is coarser then Chenab sand and similarly Sargodha crush is coarser then margala crush. As we know that Larger value of FM is preferred for fine aggregates & For a good fine aggregate, the FM should be between 2.3 and 3.1 So, we can conclude that the Laurence pure sand is a good fine aggregate as the fineness modulus of Laurence pure sand is in between the given range of a good fine aggregate. The most coarser of all the samples is Sargodha crush as its fineness modulus is greater of all. As surface area is inversely proportional to fineness modulus so Chenab sand will be having the greater surface area of all the samples as its fineness modulus is least that is 1.492. Sieve Analysis
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sir plz tell me the max and min value of fine and coarse aggregates
Read above
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how to find w/c ratio and cement content if water is 40 gm.????
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Dear guys can you tell me the specific range of fineeness modulus of coarse aggregate…am confuse because different texts says different values