Cranes,Parts,Hazards

 Cranes,Parts,Hazards

Cranes

Consists of a rotating structure for lifting and lowering on rubber tires or crawler treads.

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Crane Parts

Hoist – Used to lift and lower load.Cranes,Parts,Hazards
Boom – An inclined spar, strut, or other long member supporting the hoist
Jib – Extension attached to the boom point to provide added boom length for lifting specified loads.

Rigging Equipment Slings

Types of slings include alloy steel chain, wire rope, metal mesh, natural or synthetic fiber rope, and synthetic web.

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How Do Accidents Occur?

  • Instability – unsecured load, load capacity exceeded, or ground not level or too soft
  • Lack of communication – the point of operation is a distance from the crane operator or not in full view of the operator
  • Lack of training
  • Inadequate maintenance or inspection

Major Causes of Crane Accidents

  • Contact with power lines
  • Overturns and Falls
  • Mechanical failures

Who is at Risk ?

  • Operators
  • Persons at crane site

Load Limiting Factors for Cranes

  • Not level
  • Wind
  • On its wheels
  • Limits of wire rope, slings and lifting device

Competent Person

The competent person must inspect all machinery and equipment prior to each use, and during use, to make sure it is in safe operating condition. If it needs fixing, take it out of service and don’t use it until it is fixed.

Crane Hazards

  1. Improper loading
  2. Excessive speeds
  3. No hand signals
  4. Inadequate inspection and maintenance
  5. Unguarded swing radius
  6. Working too close to power lines
  7. Shattered windows
  8. No steps/guardrails walkways
  9. No boom angle indicator

1.Improper load

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Improper loads or speeds can result in the tipping of the crane

2.Power Lines

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Stay clear from power lines at least 10 feet

3.Hand Signals

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An illustration of the signals must be posted at the job site

4.Guard Moving Parts

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Guard moving parts such as gears or belts

5.Swing Radius

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Stay out of the swing radius of the crane – Make sure there are barrier guards showing swing radius

6.Operator Visibility

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Make sure broken windows or other obstructions do not prevent the operator from seeing

7.Ladders

crane9Use ladders to get to the upper portion of the cab

8.Guardrails

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Runways and steps need to have guardrails, handholds and slip resistant surfaces

9.Suspended Loads

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10.Boom Angle Indicator

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A boom angle indicator must be on the crane

11.Supporting Surface

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Cranes must be on a firm supporting surface and level within 1 percent

12.Sheaves

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13.Tire Inspections

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Conduct regular inspections of tires for excessive wear or damage

SUMMARY

  • An unstable load, lack of communication, lack of training, and inadequate maintenance or inspection are major contributors to crane accidents.
  • Operators or others working in the area can be victims to “struck by” and “caught in” injuries.
  • Contact with power lines causes many accidents.
  • A competent person must inspect a crane regularly to insure it is in proper order.
  • Planning and training reduces accidents.

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